- Design Challenges for Low Power VLSI Circuits (Prof. Subir Kumar Sarkar, Department of Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032, India)
Tremendous growth of the VLSI technology has been mainly due to progress of fabrication technology, which allowed systematic scale-down of device feature sizes and exponential growth of the integration level. Continuous device performance improvement is possible probably through a combination of device scaling, new device structure and material property improvement. Due to its small size, their potential integration level is significantly high and its low power operation solves some of the instability and reliability problems. The major challenges for design Engineers are to design new generation products, which consume minimum power, without compromising its performance or achieving minimum chip area. As we approach millennium, power dissipation has become the main design concern in many applications such as wristwatch, laptop, computers, and pace makers although early VLSI design did not consider it. The objective of such applications is minimum power for maximum battery life. Power dissipation is the greatest obstacle for Moore’s law. Modern chips consume power of which about 20% is wasted in leakage through the transistor gates. The traditional means of coping with increased power per generation has been to scale down the operating voltage of the chip but voltages are reaching limits due to thermal fluctuation effects. To save power, several tricks have been considered viz., minimize activity, glitches, effective capacitance, wire length of nodes and use of minimum possible supply voltage constrained by performance needed, design for high speed and then reduce voltage to get the desired speed.
- Deep Learning for Document Image Analysis (Prof. Santanu Chaudhury, Dhananjay Chair Professor, FNAE, FNASc, FIAPR, Department of Electrical Enginering, I.I.T, Delhi)
Deep networks provide a new paradigm for feature discovery and recognition. We can approach problems of document image analysis in the framework of deep learning. We shall examine use of deep learning for scene text recognition. Next we shall present an architecture for text recognition using deep LSTM. Text recognition involves some initial image processing steps like segmentation of lines and words which can induce error to the recognition system. Without segmentation, learning very long range context is difficult and becomes computationally intractable. Therefore, alternative soft decisions are needed at the pre-processing level. This paper proposes a hybrid text recognizer using a deep recurrent neural network with multiple layers of abstraction and long range context along with a language model to verify the performance of the deep neural network. In this paper we construct a multi-hypotheses tree architecture with candidate segments of line sequences from different segmentation algorithms at its different branches. The deep neural network is trained on perfectly segmented data and tests each of the candidate segments, generating unicode sequences. In the verification step, these unicode sequences are validated using a sub-string match with the language model and best first search is used to find the best possible combination of alternative hypothesis from the tree structure. Thus the verification framework using language models eliminates wrong segmentation outputs and filters recognition errors.
- Prof. Abdul Quaiyum Ansari, Department of Electrical Engineering, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi)
IT security means protecting information and information systems from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction and IT Security management is a process of defining the security controls in order to protect the information assets. The issue of security related to IT systems is not only technical but is also a governance and organizational issue. Several agencies have been working simultaneously to resolve this issue both at the technical as well as at the organizational levels. Many standards have been developed to handle this complex problem. Every country has its own IT law. The Indian IT ACT 2000 aims to provide the legal infrastructure for e-commerce in India that is supposed to make a major impact for e-businesses and the new economy in India. This Key Note will focus on the generic issues of the security challenges and their management as also the various perspectives of the IT Act 2000 as related to the international IT security standards and challenges.
- Spin Transfer Torque based Magneto-resistive Memories (Brajesh Kumar Kaushik, Microelectronics and VLSI Group, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, I. I. T, Roorkee, Uttarakhand)
Researchers believe spintronics to be one of the most promising technologies to replace the conventional CMOS technology that suffers from severe static leakage beyond 22nm technology node. Spintronics is an emerging technology that exploits an electron's spin orientation and its associated magnetic moment as state variable. It involves the storage of information in terms of non-volatile magnetization state instead of the charge. Thus, the new goal is to develop computing architecture that can normally be off when not in use to prevent static leakage. Moreover, such architecture can be turned on instantly with full performance when required. The primary requisite to achieve non-volatile architecture is non-volatile RAM (NVRAM). Most promising technology to achieve non-volatile RAMs is the emerging spintronics based magneto-resistive memories that switches by spin transfer torque (STT).Spintronics based magneto-resistive memories were revolutionized by the phenomenon of spin transfer torque (STT) effect, first demonstrated by J.C Slonczewski in 1996. After this monumental discovery, spintronics based magneto-resistive memories have evolved considerably in the last decade into their novel form known as spin transfer torque magneto-resistive random access memories (STT MRAMs). STT MRAMs store data as the resistance state of a magneto-resistive device known as magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs). An STT MRAM cell is composed of two primary components: the "Magnetic tunnel junction," which is usually characterized by magneto-resistance and switching current density, and the "Access device," which allows a given memory cell to be addressed for read or write. This talk will target for a clear understanding of STT MRAMs in terms of architecture, operation and performance comparison with other volatile and non-volatile memory technologies. Moreover, the talk will also focus towards the recent developments and challenges ahead for STT MRAMs.
- Detecting Forgery in Images: A Statistical Perspective (Ajaz Hussain Mir, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India)
Images have become inseparable part of our life. Almost in all fields ranging from media to evidence in courtrooms, images play an important role. Whereas digitization of images have opened new vistas in image, processing and analysis techniques that enable to extract concealed information from images that may even be beyond visual perception. However, because of the easy availability of photo editing software’s digitized images have, at the same time, become vulnerable to image tampering. Attacker may tamper the images to mislead the public, distort truth, and destroy someone's reputation without leaving any trace. This puts authenticity of any image in doubt. Although techniques like watermarking and stenography can be used to check authenticity of an image but these techniques are no longer viable for every generated image in view of cost in terms of time and complexity. This limitation is overcome by digital image forensics. We need a reliable forensic technique that is able to act as an evidence to image authenticity. A number of forensic image authenticity techniques have been proposed. These work with varying degree of reliability. In our approach, we base our solution on the hypothesis that tampering may change underlying statistics of an image; though traces left by tempering may not be perceptible. It may be pointed out that a number of image forgery techniques exist. However, to test the proposed technique we have used two most commonly used forgery techniques Copy-move and splicing on images taken from two standard databases CASIA and CoMoFoD. To test the proposed hypothesis, efficacy of Grey Level Run Length Method (GLRLM) based on second order statistics has been used to detect forgery in images. The features obtained based on GLRLM have demonstrated the potential of proposed method in detecting image forgeries.
- Technology Innovation and Diffusion Practical approach towards 'Make in India' (Prof. G. Mohiuddin Bhat, Department of Electronics & Instrumentation Technology, University of Kashmir, Srinagar)
'Make in India', an international marketing strategy conceptualized by the Prime Minister of India, Shri Narendra Modi in September, 2014, has been aimed to boost the industrial production and labour intensive manufacturing in India. The objective is to create a job market for a largely unemployed population of 1.2 Billion people in the country, needing about one Million additional jobs every month. The economy of Indian, presently based on agriculture, cannot be left on the mercy of the unpredictable south-west Monsoons. In order to sustain the rapid growth and alleviate poverty, India rightly needs to harness its potential of 'Make in India'. From the invention of Penicillin to the present day Mobile phone, history is witness to the fact that innovations and inventions have enabled societies to produce more. However, technology innovations can contribute towards productivity only through their application, adoption, and diffusion. Liberal support for technology innovation will enhance entrepreneurship development, which will in turn accelerate the economic growth. Technology innovation and its diffusion are, thus, very crucial towards boosting the manufacturing and service sectors. However, in spite of its large publicly funded science & technology infrastructure, India has not been able to realize its innovative potential. The decrease in the number of indigenous patent applications being filed in India in recent years has raised several questions on the promotion of innovation eco-system in the country. While China topped the global list by filing 5,26,412 Patent applications in the year 2011 (with USA having 5,03,582 patent applications, as runner up), only 42,291 patent applications were filed in India during this period. Realizing that innovation led entrepreneurship development shall promise an economic growth; the Govt. of India has recently taken several initiatives with an innovation agenda. Declaration of 2010-20 as the Decade of Innovation, establishment of National Innovation Council and formulating the Science, Technology & Innovation Policy-2013 (STIP-2013) are indicative of some positive developments in this regard. Further, national level Organizations and programmes like National Innovation Foundations (NIF), Promotion of Innovations among Individuals and MSMEs (PRISM), Grass-root Innovation and Augmentation Network (GIAN) are several other initiatives launched in this direction. Creation of a robust national innovation eco-system is one of the key elements listed in the Science Technology Innovation Policy-2013 of the Govt. of India. With a focus on the new initiative of 'Make in India', as conceived by the Prime Minister of India, this article summarizes the possibilities and challenges in the implementation of the initiative through innovation-led entrepreneurship development. The support available for promotion of innovations in the formal and non-formal sectors, as well as the process for protecting innovations through patenting, leading to the diffusion of innovative technologies have been discussed. The recommendations identified in the article shall ensure the flow of technology from academia to the industry, thereby transforming ideas into wealth, and creating a job market in the country.
- Prof. A. K. Chaturvedi, IIT Kanpur.
Cognitive radios hold tremendous promise to increase the spectral efficiency of wireless systems. We will start with a brief introduction to information theory and cognitive radio networks and then discuss the fundamental capacity limits in such networks. We will characterize a cognitive radio as an intelligent device that can use side information about its environment to improve spectral utilization.
- Current State of Cyber Crimes in the State of Jammu and Kashmir (Sh. Muhammad Rayees Bhat, IPS, SP, Hazratbal, Srinagar)
It has been often said that the basic nature of crime is theft... that all crime is theft. Only the dimensions of theft change, the paradigms keep shifting and the convoluted course of time shapes the contours. Every innovation in history has brought a flurry of change in human lifestyle and society. Law and crime being barometers of society have naturally witnessed similar changes. Proverbially crime has stayed one-step ahead of the law. In practice, law has always been a subject of supply-demand dynamics; and once in, it has anticipated a larger slew of likely demands and adapted accordingly. The initiation of technological daily life and the rapid movement along the information highway has led to a generational leap in the past decade. It was pretty rare to find a PC let alone one with an Internet connection then. Now it is a sine qua non. We not only have information literally at our fingertips but we can actually “use” that information in the real sense –buying tickets, comparing prices of that car we like, waiting for online sales to buy our favourite jeans – it’s all happening. And, yet it has brought on its attendant problems of that basic nature of crime – theft. Identity theft, password theft, credit card fraud, bank details phishing, spamming, online cheating, skimming, Nigerian scams, MMS “scandals”, Internet pornography, spy cams, misuse of communication devices, cyber terrorism, cyber wars and what not have become common knowledge nowadays. And, J&K has not been left untouched in this highly evolving scenario. All the above crimes have been perpetrated and are occurring here every day. The trends in cybercrimes show a disconcerting increase over the last few years. Not only cybercrime per se, but usual or traditional crimes unsupported by computer resources and communication devices are now almost unheard of! Emulation of modus operandi and learning criminal / anti-social tricks online has also become a trend. And, J&K Police has been using almost all the tools available at the global level to counter the threats posed by this nouveau aspect in crime.